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太阳能电池的分类及其性能参数

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太阳能电池的分类及其性能参数

发布日期:2024-03-13 00:00 来源://hbtrsc.com 点击:

   太(tai)阳(yang)能电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池是(shi)通过光(guang)(guang)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)效应或者光(guang)(guang)化(hua)学效应直接把(ba)光(guang)(guang)能转化(hua)成电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)能的装置(zhi)。只(zhi)要被(bei)光(guang)(guang)照(zhao)到,瞬(shun)间就可(ke)输出电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)压及电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)流(liu)。在物理学上称(cheng)为太(tai)阳(yang)能光(guang)(guang)伏(fu)(Photovoltaic,photo 光(guang)(guang)线,voltaics 电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)力,缩写为PV),简称(cheng)光(guang)(guang)伏(fu)。以(yi)(yi)光(guang)(guang)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)效应工(gong)作(zuo)的薄(bo)膜式太(tai)阳(yang)能电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池为主流(liu),而以(yi)(yi)光(guang)(guang)化(hua)学效应工(gong)作(zuo)的湿式太(tai)阳(yang)能电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池则还处于萌(meng)芽阶段(duan)。

  

  太阳(yang)能电池的分类:

  太(tai)(tai)(tai)阳(yang)(yang)能电(dian)池(chi)根据所(suo)用材料的不(bu)同,太(tai)(tai)(tai)阳(yang)(yang)能电(dian)池(chi)还可分为:晶硅太(tai)(tai)(tai)阳(yang)(yang)能电(dian)池(chi)、多(duo)元化合物薄(bo)膜太(tai)(tai)(tai)阳(yang)(yang)能电(dian)池(chi)、聚(ju)合物多(duo)层(ceng)修饰电(dian)极型太(tai)(tai)(tai)阳(yang)(yang)能电(dian)池(chi)等。

  1、晶硅太(tai)阳能(neng)电池

  晶(jing)硅太(tai)阳能电池(chi)分为单晶(jing)硅太(tai)阳能电池(chi)、多晶(jing)硅太(tai)阳能电池(chi)和非晶(jing)硅薄膜太(tai)阳能电池(chi)三种。

  (1)单(dan)晶(jing)硅太(tai)阳能(neng)(neng)电(dian)池(chi) 目前单(dan)晶(jing)硅太(tai)阳能(neng)(neng)电(dian)池(chi)的(de)(de)光电(dian)转换效率(lv)为(wei)19%左右,最(zui)高(gao)(gao)的(de)(de)达(da)到24%,这是(shi)目前所有种类的(de)(de)太(tai)阳能(neng)(neng)电(dian)池(chi)中光电(dian)转换效率(lv)最(zui)高(gao)(gao)的(de)(de)技(ji)术(shu)也最(zui)为(wei)成熟但(dan)制作(zuo)成本很大,以(yi)(yi)致(zhi)于(yu)(yu)它还不能(neng)(neng)被(bei)大量广泛和(he)(he)(he)普(pu)遍地(di)使用。由于(yu)(yu)单(dan)晶(jing)硅一般(ban)采用钢(gang)化玻璃(li)以(yi)(yi)及防(fang)水(shui)树脂进行封装,因此其坚固耐用,使用寿命一般(ban)可(ke)达(da)15年,最(zui)高(gao)(gao)可(ke)达(da)25年。单(dan)晶(jing)硅太(tai)阳能(neng)(neng)电(dian)池(chi)的(de)(de)构造(zao)和(he)(he)(he)生产工艺已定(ding)型,产品已广泛用于(yu)(yu)空间和(he)(he)(he)地(di)面。这种太(tai)阳能(neng)(neng)电(dian)池(chi)以(yi)(yi)高(gao)(gao)纯(chun)的(de)(de)单(dan)晶(jing)硅棒为(wei)原(yuan)料。

  (2)多晶硅太阳能电池板 多(duo)(duo)(duo)(duo)晶(jing)硅(gui)(gui)(gui)太(tai)(tai)(tai)阳(yang)(yang)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)(chi)(chi)的(de)(de)制(zhi)作(zuo)工艺(yi)与单(dan)晶(jing)硅(gui)(gui)(gui)太(tai)(tai)(tai)阳(yang)(yang)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)(chi)(chi)差(cha)不多(duo)(duo)(duo)(duo),但(dan)是多(duo)(duo)(duo)(duo)晶(jing)硅(gui)(gui)(gui)太(tai)(tai)(tai)阳(yang)(yang)能(neng)(neng)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)(chi)(chi)的(de)(de)光(guang)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)转换效(xiao)率(lv)则要降低(di)不少,其(qi)光(guang)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)转换效(xiao)率(lv)约17%左右。从制(zhi)作(zuo)成本(ben)上来讲,比(bi)单(dan)晶(jing)硅(gui)(gui)(gui)太(tai)(tai)(tai)阳(yang)(yang)能(neng)(neng)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)(chi)(chi)要便宜(yi)一(yi)些(xie),材(cai)料制(zhi)造简便,节约电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)耗(hao),总的(de)(de)生产(chan)成本(ben)较低(di),因此得(de)到大量(liang)发展。此外(wai),多(duo)(duo)(duo)(duo)晶(jing)硅(gui)(gui)(gui)太(tai)(tai)(tai)阳(yang)(yang)能(neng)(neng)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)(chi)(chi)的(de)(de)使(shi)用寿命也要比(bi)单(dan)晶(jing)硅(gui)(gui)(gui)太(tai)(tai)(tai)阳(yang)(yang)能(neng)(neng)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)(chi)(chi)短。 多(duo)(duo)(duo)(duo)晶(jing)硅(gui)(gui)(gui)太(tai)(tai)(tai)阳(yang)(yang)能(neng)(neng)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)(chi)(chi)的(de)(de)生产(chan)需(xu)要消耗(hao)大量(liang)的(de)(de)高纯硅(gui)(gui)(gui)材(cai)料,而(er)制(zhi)造这些(xie)材(cai)料工艺(yi)复杂,电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)耗(hao)很大,在太(tai)(tai)(tai)阳(yang)(yang)能(neng)(neng)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)(chi)(chi)生产(chan)总成本(ben)中己超二(er)分之一(yi)。

  (3)非晶体(ti)薄膜太(tai)阳能(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)电(dian)(dian)池(chi)(chi) 非晶硅(gui)(gui)薄膜太(tai)阳能(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)电(dian)(dian)池(chi)(chi)与(yu)单晶硅(gui)(gui)和多晶硅(gui)(gui)太(tai)阳电(dian)(dian)池(chi)(chi)的(de)(de)(de)制作方法完全不同,工艺过程大(da)大(da)简化,硅(gui)(gui)材料消耗很少(shao),电(dian)(dian)耗更(geng)低,成本(ben)低重(zhong)量轻,转(zhuan)换效(xiao)率(lv)较(jiao)高,便于大(da)规模生产,它的(de)(de)(de)主(zhu)要(yao)优点是(shi)在弱光(guang)条(tiao)件也能(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)发(fa)电(dian)(dian),有极大(da)的(de)(de)(de)潜(qian)力。但非晶硅(gui)(gui)太(tai)阳电(dian)(dian)池(chi)(chi)存在的(de)(de)(de)主(zhu)要(yao)问题(ti)(ti)是(shi)光(guang)电(dian)(dian)转(zhuan)换效(xiao)率(lv)偏低,目(mu)前国际先进(jin)水平为10%左(zuo)右,且不够稳定,随着(zhe)时间的(de)(de)(de)延长(zhang),其转(zhuan)换效(xiao)率(lv)衰(shuai)减,直接(jie)影响了它的(de)(de)(de)实际应用。如果能(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)进(jin)一步解决稳定性(xing)问题(ti)(ti)及提高转(zhuan)换率(lv)问题(ti)(ti),那么(me),非晶硅(gui)(gui)大(da)阳能(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)电(dian)(dian)池(chi)(chi)无(wu)疑是(shi)太(tai)阳能(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)电(dian)(dian)池(chi)(chi)的(de)(de)(de)主(zhu)要(yao)发(fa)展(zhan)产品之一。

  

  2、多(duo)元化合物薄膜太(tai)阳能电池

  多元化(hua)(hua)(hua)合(he)物薄膜太(tai)阳能(neng)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)材料为无机(ji)盐(yan),其主(zhu)要(yao)包括砷(shen)化(hua)(hua)(hua)镓III-V族化(hua)(hua)(hua)合(he)物、硫(liu)(liu)化(hua)(hua)(hua)镉(ge)、硫(liu)(liu)化(hua)(hua)(hua)镉(ge)及(ji)铜锢硒薄膜电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)等(deng)。硫(liu)(liu)化(hua)(hua)(hua)镉(ge)、碲化(hua)(hua)(hua)镉(ge)多晶薄膜电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)的(de)(de)效率(lv)(lv)较非晶硅(gui)薄膜太(tai)阳能(neng)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)效率(lv)(lv)高,成本较单晶硅(gui)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)低,并且也易(yi)于大规模(mo)生产(chan),但(dan)由于镉(ge)有(you)(you)剧毒,会对环境造成严重的(de)(de)污染,因此,并不(bu)是晶体(ti)硅(gui)太(tai)阳能(neng)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)最理想(xiang)的(de)(de)替代产(chan)品。砷(shen)化(hua)(hua)(hua)镓(GaAs)III-V化(hua)(hua)(hua)合(he)物电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)的(de)(de)转换效率(lv)(lv)可(ke)达28%,GaAs化(hua)(hua)(hua)合(he)物材料具有(you)(you)十分理想(xiang)的(de)(de)光学带隙以及(ji)较高的(de)(de)吸收效率(lv)(lv),抗辐(fu)照(zhao)能(neng)力强,对热(re)不(bu)敏感,适合(he)于制造高效单结电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)。但(dan)是GaAs材料的(de)(de)价格不(bu)菲(fei),因而在(zai)很大程(cheng)度上(shang)限制了用GaAs电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)的(de)(de)普及(ji)。

  CIS 铜(tong)铟硒薄膜电(dian)池(简称(cheng)CIS)适合(he)光(guang)电(dian)转(zhuan)换,不(bu)存在(zai)光(guang)致衰退问题,转(zhuan)换效率(lv)和多晶硅(gui)一样。具有价格低廉、性能良好和工(gong)艺简单等(deng)优(you)点,将成为今(jin)后发展太阳能电(dian)池的(de)(de)一个(ge)重要方向。唯一的(de)(de)问题是材料的(de)(de)来源,由于铟和硒都是比较(jiao)稀有的(de)(de)元素,因此,这类电(dian)池的(de)(de)发展又(you)必然(ran)受(shou)到限制。

  

       3、聚合物多层修饰电极(ji)型太阳能电池(chi)

  在(zai)太(tai)阳能电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池中以聚(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)合(he)(he)物(wu)(wu)代(dai)替(ti)无机(ji)材(cai)料是刚刚开始的(de)一(yi)(yi)个(ge)太(tai)阳能电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池制爸的(de)研(yan)究方向(xiang)(xiang)(xiang)。其原(yuan)(yuan)(yuan)理是利用不同氧化(hua)还(hai)原(yuan)(yuan)(yuan)型聚(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)合(he)(he)物(wu)(wu)的(de)不同氧化(hua)还(hai)原(yuan)(yuan)(yuan)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)势,在(zai)导(dao)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)材(cai)料(电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)极(ji)(ji))表面(mian)进(jin)行多层(ceng)(ceng)(ceng)复合(he)(he),制成类似无机(ji)P-N结的(de)单向(xiang)(xiang)(xiang)导(dao)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)装置(zhi)。其中一(yi)(yi)个(ge)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)极(ji)(ji)的(de)内层(ceng)(ceng)(ceng)由还(hai)原(yuan)(yuan)(yuan)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)位(wei)较(jiao)低(di)的(de)聚(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)合(he)(he)物(wu)(wu)修饰,外(wai)层(ceng)(ceng)(ceng)聚(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)合(he)(he)物(wu)(wu)的(de)还(hai)原(yuan)(yuan)(yuan)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)位(wei)较(jiao)高(gao),电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)子转(zhuan)移(yi)方向(xiang)(xiang)(xiang)只能由内层(ceng)(ceng)(ceng)向(xiang)(xiang)(xiang)外(wai)层(ceng)(ceng)(ceng)转(zhuan)移(yi);另一(yi)(yi)个(ge)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)极(ji)(ji)的(de)修饰正好(hao)相反,并(bing)且(qie)第一(yi)(yi)个(ge)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)极(ji)(ji)上两种(zhong)聚(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)合(he)(he)物(wu)(wu)的(de)还(hai)原(yuan)(yuan)(yuan)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)位(wei)均高(gao)于(yu)后者(zhe)的(de)两种(zhong)聚(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)合(he)(he)物(wu)(wu)的(de)还(hai)原(yuan)(yuan)(yuan)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)位(wei)。当两个(ge)修饰电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)极(ji)(ji)放入含有光(guang)(guang)敏化(hua)剂的(de)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)解波(bo)中时.光(guang)(guang)敏化(hua)剂吸光(guang)(guang)后产生的(de)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)子转(zhuan)移(yi)到还(hai)原(yuan)(yuan)(yuan)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)位(wei)较(jiao)低(di)的(de)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)极(ji)(ji)上,还(hai)原(yuan)(yuan)(yuan)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)位(wei)较(jiao)低(di)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)极(ji)(ji)上积累的(de)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)子不能向(xiang)(xiang)(xiang)外(wai)层(ceng)(ceng)(ceng)聚(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)合(he)(he)物(wu)(wu)转(zhuan)移(yi),只能通过外(wai)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)路通过还(hai)原(yuan)(yuan)(yuan)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)位(wei)较(jiao)高(gao)的(de)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)极(ji)(ji)回到电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)解液(ye),因此(ci)外(wai)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)路中有光(guang)(guang)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)流产生。

  由于有(you)机材(cai)料柔性好,制作容易,材(cai)料来源广泛,成本底等优势,从而对大规模(mo)利用(yong)太阳能(neng),提供廉价电能(neng)具(ju)有(you)重要意(yi)义(yi)。但以有(you)机材(cai)料制备(bei)太阳能(neng)电池(chi)的研究(jiu)仅仅刚开始,不论是(shi)使(shi)用(yong)寿(shou)命,还是(shi)电池(chi)效率都不能(neng)和无机材(cai)料特别是(shi)硅电池(chi)相(xiang)比。能(neng)否发展成为具(ju)有(you)实用(yong)意(yi)义(yi)的产(chan)品,还有(you)待于进一步研究(jiu)探索

  

  太阳能电(dian)池(chi)的(de)性能参数:

  1、开路电压

  开路电(dian)压(ya)UOC:即将太阳能电(dian)池(chi)置于AM1.5光谱条件(jian)、100 mW/cm2的(de)光源强度照射下,在(zai)两端开路时,太阳能电(dian)池(chi)的(de)输出电(dian)压(ya)值。

  2、短路电流

  短路电流(liu)ISC:就是将太阳(yang)能电池置于AM1.5光谱条(tiao)件、100 mW/cm2的光源(yuan)强度照射下(xia),在输出(chu)端短路时(shi),流(liu)过太阳(yang)能电池两端的电流(liu)值(zhi)。

  3、最大输出功率(lv)

  太阳能电(dian)(dian)池的(de)(de)工(gong)(gong)作电(dian)(dian)压和电(dian)(dian)流是随负载(zai)电(dian)(dian)阻而变化(hua)的(de)(de),将不同阻值所(suo)对应的(de)(de)工(gong)(gong)作电(dian)(dian)压和电(dian)(dian)流值做(zuo)成曲(qu)线(xian)就得到太阳能电(dian)(dian)池的(de)(de)伏安(an)特(te)性曲(qu)线(xian)。如果选(xuan)择(ze)的(de)(de)负载(zai)电(dian)(dian)阻值能使输出(chu)电(dian)(dian)压和电(dian)(dian)流的(de)(de)乘积最(zui)大,即可获得最(zui)大输出(chu)功(gong)率,用符(fu)号(hao)Pm表示(shi)。此时的(de)(de)工(gong)(gong)作电(dian)(dian)压和工(gong)(gong)作电(dian)(dian)流称(cheng)为(wei)最(zui)佳工(gong)(gong)作电(dian)(dian)压和最(zui)佳工(gong)(gong)作电(dian)(dian)流,分别用符(fu)号(hao)Um和Im表示(shi)。

  4、填充因子

  太(tai)阳(yang)(yang)能(neng)电(dian)(dian)池(chi)的(de)(de)另一(yi)个重(zhong)要参数是(shi)填(tian)充(chong)(chong)因子(zi)FF(fill factor),它是(shi)最大(da)(da)(da)输出(chu)(chu)功率(lv)与(yu)开(kai)(kai)路(lu)电(dian)(dian)压和短路(lu)电(dian)(dian)流(liu)乘积之比。FF: 是(shi)衡量太(tai)阳(yang)(yang)能(neng)电(dian)(dian)池(chi)输出(chu)(chu)特性(xing)的(de)(de)重(zhong)要指标, 是(shi)代表(biao)太(tai)阳(yang)(yang)能(neng)电(dian)(dian)池(chi)在带最佳负载时(shi), 能(neng)输出(chu)(chu)的(de)(de)最大(da)(da)(da)功率(lv)的(de)(de)特性(xing),其值(zhi)越(yue)(yue)大(da)(da)(da)表(biao)示太(tai)阳(yang)(yang)能(neng)电(dian)(dian)池(chi)的(de)(de)输出(chu)(chu)功率(lv)越(yue)(yue)大(da)(da)(da)。FF 的(de)(de)值(zhi)始终(zhong)小于1。串、并(bing)联电(dian)(dian)阻对填(tian)充(chong)(chong)因子(zi)有较(jiao)大(da)(da)(da)影响。串联电(dian)(dian)阻越(yue)(yue)大(da)(da)(da),短路(lu)电(dian)(dian)流(liu)下降(jiang)越(yue)(yue)多,填(tian)充(chong)(chong)因子(zi)也(ye)随之减少的(de)(de)越(yue)(yue)多;并(bing)联电(dian)(dian)阻越(yue)(yue)小,其分电(dian)(dian)流(liu)就(jiu)越(yue)(yue)大(da)(da)(da),导致开(kai)(kai)路(lu)电(dian)(dian)压就(jiu)下降(jiang)的(de)(de)越(yue)(yue)多,填(tian)充(chong)(chong)因子(zi)随之也(ye)下降(jiang)的(de)(de)越(yue)(yue)多。

  5、转换效率

  太(tai)阳(yang)(yang)能(neng)(neng)电(dian)池(chi)的(de)(de)转换效(xiao)率指在外部(bu)回路上连(lian)接最佳负(fu)载电(dian)阻时(shi)的(de)(de)最大能(neng)(neng)量(liang)转换效(xiao)率,等于太(tai)阳(yang)(yang)能(neng)(neng)电(dian)池(chi)的(de)(de)输(shu)出(chu)功率与入(ru)射到(dao)太(tai)阳(yang)(yang)能(neng)(neng)电(dian)池(chi)表面的(de)(de)能(neng)(neng)量(liang)之比。太(tai)阳(yang)(yang)能(neng)(neng)电(dian)池(chi)的(de)(de)光(guang)电(dian)转换效(xiao)率是衡(heng)量(liang)电(dian)池(chi)质(zhi)量(liang)和(he)技术水(shui)平的(de)(de)重要(yao)参(can)数,它(ta)与电(dian)池(chi)的(de)(de)结(jie)构、结(jie)特性(xing)、材料(liao)性(xing)质(zhi)、工(gong)作(zuo)温(wen)度、放射性(xing)粒子辐射损伤和(he)环境变化等有关(guan)。

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